A Healing Garden

Today I will tell you about a project I worked on last year: the design and maintenance of a small “nature-friendly garden” within the Vittore Buzzi Children’s Hospital in Milan.

Since 2019, I have been an active member of a volunteer association that helped the municipality of Milan in planning and building a public park called Segantini (Associazione Parco Segantini (APS)). Now, its members (approximately 200 families contributing an annual fee of 25 or 50 euros) maintain three orchards, each measuring 1,000 square meters (m2), and a reforested area of about 15,000 m2 with over 1,000 native trees from the Po River basin.

In the photo you can see a part of Segantini Park. Two of the three orchards are shown.

It is a successful example of citizen participation that works not only because it has brought together people with different skills who share a passion for caring for urban nature and sustainable agriculture but also because genuine human relationships have been formed among its active members.

Thanks to this reputation, during the first months of 2022, the Missione Sogni (Mission Dreams) association sought help from APS to activate or reactivate gardens in some pediatric hospitals in Milan.

Missione Sogni financed the construction and maintenance of small gardens in pediatric hospitals for hospitalized children and their families. Additionally, they organized playful/educational activities once a week for those who could and wanted to participate.

After the COVID pandemic, it was challenging to re-establish collaboration with hospitals. Together with Antonella and Pamela from Missione Sogni, we visited three hospitals, of which only the Buzzi Hospital gave us the permission to use a terrace on the third floor to create a garden from scratch.

Cultivating in boxes is always a challenge because, unlike planting directly in the ground, plants, unable to reach underground water or nutrients, depend on our care to survive.

We formed a group of five APS members (Riccardo, Gabriela, Lino, Maurizio, and myself) to create the Children’s Garden at Buzzi Hospital:

  • Water was made available to implement an automatic drip irrigation system and a sink, essential for working in the garden.
  • Seven large and eight small robust plastic boxes were purchased and arranged in a “C” shape on the sunniest part of the terrace. Sunlight is crucial for plant life.
  • Sacks made of a resistant plastic material were sewn to the dimensions of the boxes. They were placed inside the boxes and, on the top, a layer of volcanic stones was added to prevent water stagnation, followed by fertile soil.
  • Two cabinets for educational materials and gardening, a small greenhouse, a rainwater collection system, a rotating composter, a sunshade, two tables, and several plastic stools were purchased and assembled.

With this, the essentials were ready to welcome plants, children and their families, and hospital staff. But what makes a garden respectful of nature? How does nature function?

Let’s try to understand how a forest ecosystem works. Within a forest, many types of life coexist (plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria, and if there are rivers and lakes nearby, algae).

We needed to create a place where children and their families could observe, explore, and understand urban nature and its cycles, a place to produce some vegetables and fruits. A beautiful and lively place to rest and heal!

In the forest, the ground is always covered with leaves that fall from trees and, over time, transform into soil (organic matter) because microorganisms (bacteria, fungi) and macroorganisms (worms, insects) eat them.

No one waters the vegetation in the forest because many interactions occur underground; for example, mycorrhizal fungi allow tree roots to reach water and minerals. A true system of exchange known as the internet of plants!

In boxes, on a terrace, on the third floor, plants cannot create these types of interactions. But if we integrate into the ecosystem as agents who care for and embrace life, agents who create beauty, they are able to live.

The first thing we needed was perennial trees and plants. So, we turned to Silvio, a key figure in the creation of the Segantini Park and one of the main contributors to the creation of Boscoincittà, a large 120-hectare forest in the northwest of Milan established since 1974 with the help of volunteer citizens.

Silvio knows many people, and thanks to him, three trees were donated for the children’s garden: ginkgo biloba, pomegranate, and red maple. We arranged them at the edges of the garden.

Considering that the garden was ready in June, the beginning of summer in Italy (and not the best time to start a garden), we bought some native plants found in the vivarium: three varieties of basil (Italian, red, and Greek), lavender, thyme, marigold flowers, lettuce, thornless blackberry, a blueberry bush, and another pomegranate.

APS gifted us calendula flowers, borage, a cherry tomato, and two peppers. And during the year they donated many other vegetables.

We transplanted the plants into the boxes, considering their space needs and the friendly conditions known to exist between them. Did you know that some plants love to be together while others cannot tolerate each other? The plant world is fantastic.

With the garden ready, (almost) every week (from June 2022 to September 2023), I dedicated two hours of work that included maintenance and an activity with the children.

Activities with the children had to be flexible and playful because they depended on the health and mood of the children and their families.

The activity was usually decided based on the garden’s conditions, the care it required, and the season (temperature, rain, and sun). Observation was crucial.

We used smell and sight to identify plants. We collected, identified and sowed seeds. Drew the plants. Harvested fruits from the ground. Stored rainwater for irrigation. Covered the ground with leaves and straw to protect micro and macroorganisms and prevent water evaporation. Prepared the ground for planting potatoes. Planted various flowers everywhere. Exchanged the unhappy raspberry for a madrone (a Mediterranean shrub-tree). Introduced more aromatic plants (sage, lemon verbena, rosemary). Made compost. Transplanted strawberries and learned their life cycle. Cultivated onions and carrots. Prepared pesto for the hospital staff, and so on.

Every week, Mery or a nurse from the ward informed me of how many children could come out if they felt like it. Luisa and Piera, the hospital teachers, also invited the children to participate in the activities.

Sometimes the children were very motivated and stayed for a long time, other times they were tired and decided to return to their rooms early, and sometimes doctors needed to visit them, and they had to return to their rooms.

I quickly discovered that even though the garden can allow for the experience to taste and discuss about nutrition, in a hospital context, this could not be proposed. So, the ripe products harvested were given to the hospital staff (doctors and nurses). Thus, the children cared for the garden plants (and the living beings that inhabit it) and gifted their fruits to the people who care for them.

Unfortunately, Missione Sogni, which financed maintenance and activities with children, ceased to exist in October 2023. Fortunately, another association present in the hospital decided to take care of the garden, so the plants will continue to bring comfort to children and their families.

The creation of this relationship of gratitude toward doctors and nurses through the delivery of products from the garden cared for by children and their families is the most beautiful thing I take from this experience. I hope it can be maintained and replicated in hospitals around the world.

Little space, respect, observation, and care are required to aid in healing and expressing gratitude for the work of those who heal us.

By M. S. Gachet

Community-supported agriculture

In June we had the opportunity to spend 10 days in Siena, a beautiful city full of traditions in Tuscany (Italy).

Looking for a place to stay, we found a small apartment inside a very old farmhouse in the hills outside of Siena. A community farming project was mentioned in the site description. We thought this looked interesting and so we booked it!

Not just a country house

Upon arrival, we entered the property through a small path lined with pointed cypresses (typical of Tuscany), olive trees and some fruit trees. At the top of the hill, we found a large, very old brick building.

We were greeted by Pietro, who, before taking us to the apartment, showed us the “oven room” on the ground floor. He informed us that Andrea comes three days a week in the morning to prepare bread for the cooperative and that if we see smoke we should not worry; the oven room becomes a bakery.

View from Pietro’s house. Characteristic landscape around Siena.

I love making bread, so I would not leave without meeting Andrea.

Before leaving, Pietro invited us to stop by the orchard that is at the base of the hill any day of our stay and,  if we were interested, he would tell us about the project he is working on.

When we asked him for some vegetables to cook in the following days, he told us that the vegetables were collective and therefore to get them we would have to go to the cooperative store. How curious, right?

The next day, at the cooperative store, we bought vegetables from the orchard (delicious!) and in the evening we visited it (in Siena in June it gets dark after 9:30 p.m.).

Photo of the orchard courtesy of MondoMangione.

The orchard is cultivated in an area of 1.5 hectares (107,639 square feet) and is home to 2 retired horses, one of which passed away during our stay (RIP).

Pietro lives on the property together with his partner, their young son, and some chickens and goats. The goats help to keep the grass down.

Pietro with the two retired horses outside di orchard. Photo courtesy of MondoMangione.

He told us that in addition to the orchard, the cooperative has planted fruit trees and that they have bees, the latter cared for by members of the cooperative.

The property is large and next to the orchard there are crops of wheat and olive trees (given in concession to third parties).

When we arrived, Pietro was leaving so we agreed to have dinner together another day. We would still have to wait to find out about the project and the famous cooperative.

A baker in the house

In the following days, we met Andrea the baker, a young man from around Siena who, seeing our interest in his bread, invited us to come at 5 in the morning the day after.

Andrea preparing bread. Photo courtesy of MondoMangione.

When I arrived, it was after 7 o’clock and Andrea was cutting the already leavened dough to prepare about thirty one-kilogram loaves for the members of the cooperative. He was very worried because the bread was not the right shape; it was a bit flattened.

To make bread you need: flour (various types of wheat or other cereals), water, yeast and salt. There are two types of yeast used to make bread:

brewer’s yeast bought on the market is a monoculture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and,
sourdough yeast, which is a symbiotic culture of yeasts naturally present in the environment. Contrary to commercial yeast, the amount of sourdough necessary to prepare a certain amount of bread must be cultivated prior to its preparation. 

The process of making bread is relatively simple. You mix the flour with the water, then add the sourdough and, at the end, the salt. The mixture is then kneaded for a certain time, left to leaven (or ferment)* for a set time at a certain temperature and at the end it is baked at the appropriate temperature and time.

*During the fermentation of the bread, the yeasts consume the gluten that is the protein of the flour and release carbon dioxide (CO2);  yes, the same gas that we exhale during respiration. When we knead the bread dough, we create a gluten mesh that retains the CO2 that, trying to get out, causes the bread to inflate, or rise.

To obtain good quality bread, one needs to control the raw materials (flour, yeast, salt and water), temperature and time. Just a few variables, right? It cannot be that hard. In reality yes, mastering them requires the skills and knowledge of a specialized craftsman.

Andrea was very worried about the bread, so we made a “checklist” together.

Not just any bread

Andrea told me that the flour he uses comes from a farm that is growing cereals from an “evolutionary” population, meaning, made up of seeds of different varieties, mostly indigenous, that are sown and allowed to grow together.

The idea is that over time, the varieties that have best adapted to the climatic conditions of the soil in which they are found will prosper. Thus, the composition of the population that survives will be resistant to changes in climate and capable of sustaining high levels of productivity without the need for chemical products that are harmful to the soil.

The cooperative buys all the production of “resistant wheat,” which this year will be doubled. FYI, the evolutionary population of cereals is carried out together with the University of Siena.

Andrea used the same flour before the problem appeared, so the problem could not be the flour.

The knead is done manually by him, so it should not be it.

The laboratory where he works (the oven room) does not have an air conditioning system and the wood-fired oven is inside… additionally room temperature those days was high. It had to be the temperature that was influencing the growth of the yeasts.

Andrea was controlling the temperature all the time and reducing time of leaven to compensate for the higher temperature, but the bread was still flat…

Andrea is young and loves making bread. Surely with time, study and automating some variables, he will be able to obtain resilient bread even in the hot summer months. Yes, the bread was a bit fat but it was delicious!

Bread ready to be delivered. Photo courtesy of MondoMangione.

Finally “the cooperative”

A few days before leaving, we met Piero who, during dinner, told us about his famous MondoMangione Cooperative Society, of which the orchard and the bread are part.

MondoMangione is a cooperative of conscious consumers that was born in Siena in 2004. It has created a small organized distribution of local, organic and fair trade products. The cooperative has the objective of establishing an economy based on the direct and transparent relationship between producer and consumer, respecting the territory, the environment and peoples work.

In 2019, they started with the OrtoMangione project, a collective orchard structured as a CSA (Community-Supported Agriculture) that has recovered 1.5 hectares of abandoned land. In 2021, the Il Pane dell’Orto (bread in the orchard) started as a collective baking project, also structured as a CSA.

CSA Model

The CSA model is practiced in Japan, United States, Canada, England, Italy, Germany, Austria and other places.

In Italy, there are three CSAs: Arvaia In Bologna (9 years of activity, almost 500 partners, 7 working partners, 47 hectares), Semele in Florence (70 partners) and OrtoMangione (the most recent).

In this type of agricultural cooperative, all resources (installation costs, equipment costs, labor costs, management costs) are provided by a group of people, who, in compensation, receive a part of what the orchard produces every week. They cultivate using natural methods.

The CSA model presupposes an active and participatory community.

Possible purchasing systems used by people living in cities.

Siena’s CSA

In the case of OrtoMangione, production is organized on the basis of business risk sharing, respect for food, waste reduction and support for worker members (Pietro and his colleague’s salary).

The “co-producer partners” (around 70 members) pay an initial fee of €75 as a contribution to the cost of setting up the orchard (75% as a donation and 25% as an association fee) and an annual fee of €750  (single payment or in 4 installments). They use the donations to finance necessary supplies, for example they plan to use the donations raised in 2021/2022 to fund a greenhouse and a new chicken house.

With the annual membership fee, partners receive a 5.5 kg box of vegetables (designed for a family of 2-3 people, with at least 5 varieties per week and 30 varieties of vegetables per year) for 45 of the 52 weeks of the year, and have the possibility of participating in the different activities of the orchard.

This cost may seem high, but for the economy of an average Italian family, considering that we are talking about healthy vegetables which are regenerating soil and generating jobs, it is an affordable price (€19 for a box a week). Costs have to be adapted to local realities.

As it is an active community, the partners commit to carry out at least one of the following activities:

work in the garden (harvesting, planting, storage, maintenance of outdoor spaces, etc.) once a month for a minimum of 2 hours
participation in the committee (1 meeting per month) or in working groups (administration, communication, events, etc.
help with the distribution of vegetables on harvest days (minimum 2 hours per month).

Two members of the CSA OrtoMangione setting up the net to grow the cucumbers. Photo courtesy of MondoMangione.

What about the bread?

In a similar way for the bread, a group of people with an annual subscription pre-finance the preparation of a 1 Kg bread that they will receive once a week. In this way, the members guarantee the maintenance of an artisanal activity (Andrea’s salary) and the use of the wood oven.

The “co-baker partners” collaborate in the management and evolution of the project, and can participate in activities to share and learn how bread is made. Thus, the oven is open to all members, even to bake a mold of biscuits or a good cake using the oven that is still hot.

Projects like “the orchard” and “the orchard’s bread” give the opportunity to be part of a group of people who collectively care for a piece of land, create resilience and support tradition.

Pietro told me during the first year of production there was a fungal infection due to an error in the management of the greenhouse that compromised the entire tomato production. A lot of work and resources were at risk of being lost!

Due to the magnitude of the problem, the advised solution was to use a fungicide. The partners of the cooperative got together and decided that if the plants were sick, they had to be cured and thus they used the fungicide.

When tomatoes were ready, partners were informed about the previous fungicide treatment and people had the choice to take or refuse the tomatoes; some people refused the tomatoes.

By telling me this story, Pietro wanted to point out that we shall not blind ourselves on preconception.

Being part of a community can help us to stay open-minded, to understand the problems faced by our farmers and artisans and to be open to solutions to solve those issues.

Let’s create or be part of a community that stimulates exchange between people who live in the same place, producing essential goods, generating jobs, human relations and a redistribution system that eliminates waste and allows us to be informed!

Let us be part of a citizenship that actively creates the community in which we want to live! 

Volunteers from the Segantini Park Association (APS) in Milan, Italy, after cleaning the creek in the naturalistic area of the park. A mentally disturbed person polluted the creek for months with plastic waste and glass that he accumulated from bars near the park. Finally, thanks to the joint action of the APS, other citizen associations and the municipality, it was possible to give medical help to the person responsible and to clean the area.

By M. S. Gachet

A story of Wheat

Wheat is a very ancient cereal that was first cultivated in the fertile crescent located in the regions between the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, more than 9,000 years before Christ.

In 2020, wheat was the third most produced plant species in the world after sugar cane and corn (closely followed by rice).1

Did you know that 75% of the world’s food is generated from only 12 species of plants and 5 species of animals?2 Among them, wheat.

These 12 plants and five animal species feed us. It is possible to increase food agrobiodiversity (eating different varieties of food). Just keep in mind that of the 250,000 to 300,000 known edible plant species, humans only use 150 to 200.2

Bread, empanadas, noodles and many foods that we eat every day are made with flour that comes from wheat.

Not all wheat flours are the same. The quality depends on the production chain, meaning, the type of seed, the type of agriculture with which it is grown, the health of the soil and the way the grain is milled.3

Wheat, known in Latin as Triticum, is a plant from the same family as rice, rye, barley, and oats.

In Italy where I live, about 2,000 varieties of wheat are known; but only a few are cultivated on a large scale. 4  

On the market, there are two types of wheat: soft and hard. Most soft wheat comes from the species Triticum aestivum e and most hard wheat comes from the species Triticum durum.5

Soft and hard wheats are very similar on a structural level but different from a nutritional point of view and uses. They grow in different environments; hard wheat tolerates hot, sunny arid soils while soft wheat prefers a fresh and more humid climate. Hard wheat flour contains more proteins and gluten than soft wheat flour and has a greater water absorption capacity. Products prepared with hard wheat flour have better conservation and a lower glycemic index.6

The soft wheat grain breaks easily and is opaque, rounded and crumbly. The flour obtained from the grinding of soft wheat has a good extensibility and a medium-low toughness. It is usually used in the production of bread, leavened products (cakes, biscuits, pizzas) and fresh pasta.6

On the other hand, hard wheat grain is really “hard”, has a slightly more elongated shape and is almost translucent. The flour obtained from hard wheat is rough and is yellow-amber in color. The dough obtained from hard flour has a lower extensibility than the soft flour but a high tenacity, which makes it good both for making bread and for the production of pasta.6

Do you know how many varieties of wheat are grown in your country? Is enough wheat grown to meet your country’s flour needs? Is wheat imported? Is flour imported? From where?

Now that we know a bit more about wheat, I will tell you a story of a seed that became pasta.

From the seed to the noodles
Part 1: Seeding

Everything starts from the seed, which in the case of wheat is part of the plant’s fruit.

The seed is the baby of the plant and to grow healthy and strong it needs a living soil rich in nutrients (see article V.I. S. ((Very Important Soil)), water and clean air.

For the sowing we use the soft grain that comes from Cascine Orsine, a farm in the province of Pavia (approximately 30 km away from the Segantini park in Milan) that cultivates using biodynamic agriculture. Andrea, the owner of SoulFood, the restaurant close to the park where we did the Macambo event (see article Macambo as a solution. Chapter 1: The proposal), got me the seeds for this experiment.

Wheat likes cold weather. In northern Italy, it is advisable to sow it 6 weeks before the first hard frost. We sowed in mid-November.

We planted the wheat in 2 beds measuring 5 x 5 meters (total 50 square meters (m2)) in Segantini Park, a park in the city of Milan in Italy. In the first bed, clover, a plant that fertilizes the soil, has previously been planted. In the second bed, we decided to make an mixture of both wheat and broad beans.

Before seeding, we prepared the soil; we removed weeds and fertilized one of the beds with compost and a little manure.

We sowed approximately 30 g of seeds at a distance of about 12-13 cm, making shallow holes to introduce the seeds. The recommended depth is twice the size of the seed so that it can come out without problems but at the same time is protected.

We put 4 seeds in each hole because we were not sure how many plants would sprout.

Finally, we watered gently (similar to a light rain) so as not to disturb the soil and waited for germination 🙂

In the following days, we controlled the ground humidity (so that it would not dry out) and the temperature. During this time, we followed two important actions; if it was very dry, we watered it and if it was very cold, we covered the ground.  

In both beds the wheat grew very well and in June it was ready to be harvested.

In April, with great care not to damage the wheat, the broad beans were harvested. Interestingly, in the bed where the clover was, a lot of poppies grew.

Part 2: The wheat harvest

The manual harvesting of wheat is called reaping. Using a sickle, we cut the base of the wheat stalks with fast and determined movements.

Then, we cut the spikes from the stems and put them in a cotton bag.

To free the grains, we hit the bag against the table and rubbed the spikes inside the bag using our hands. Then, with the help of a fan, we separated the bran from the wheat grains.

The process of loosening the edible part of grain (or other crop) from the straw to which it is attached is known as threshing. Did you know that in ancient times animals like horses were made to run over the ears of wheat to release the grains? Here you can see a video showing it.

This may seem like very hard work, but if it is done in company, it is fun!

Part 3: Grain milling  

To grain the wheat grains we used a small electric stone mill. Little by little, preventing the mill from overheating, we transformed almost 1.5 Kg of grain into flour.

Using a sieve, we started by separating the bran from the flour but later decided that we would only have a whole wheat flour. We only removed the very big pieces.

Making flour.

Part 4: Preparation of the noodles (pasta)

Italy is famous for its fresh pasta, so with friends from the park, we decided to prepare a dish of pasta with tomatoes puree, eggplant and goat cheese.

To prepare the fresh pasta, we used 1 egg (or the liquid equivalent of 1 egg) for every 100 g of flour.

We prepared 700 g of flour using 7 eggs donated by Claudio’s hens. Then, we kneaded the mixture creating a homogeneous dough. As the dough was too dry, we needed to add more water.

We let the dough rest for an hour (an essential step in the preparation of the pasta).

Then, using a pasta making machine, we made tagliatelle (wide flat spaghetti) that we cooked in abundant salt water.

For the garnish, the aubergines were first dehydrated with plenty of salt. Then they were washed, passed in flour and fried in abundant hot oil.

The tomatoes were cooked and then passed through a manual tomato press where the skin and seeds were removed (it can also be blended).

At the end, when the pasta was ready (al dente), the fried aubergines, olive oil and grated goat ricotta were added. A treat!

If you are wondering if it was worth all the hard work to eat a plate of fresh pasta, the answer is YES!! All the steps were fun and the taste was delicious!

I cannot say that the taste is better than other fresh pastas made with quality raw materials found on the market or eaten in restaurants that value the origin of the products. But I am sure that seeing the wheat grow, process it and prepare the pasta is an experience that gives the dish an important additional value also in terms of flavor. If you can, give it a try!

Part 5: A tradition begins?

The experience of making pasta starting from the seed was a complete success! We decided to seed wheat again this year, this time at the end of October. Who knows, maybe it will become a park tradition?

By M. S. Gachet

1 FAO. Food and agriculture data
2 FAO. What is happening to Agrobiodiversity?
3 Slow Food. La buona lista della spesa: il pane
4 Slow Food. Grano duro: meglio italiano o straniero?
5 Wikipedia. Triticum
6 Mulino Vald’Orcia. Che differenza c’è tra Grano Duro e Grano Tenero

Nature, Agriculture and Respect

After oxygen and water, food is what keeps us living and healthy however, some types of foods are better than others with the best type being “true food”.

But which are the true foods?

True foods are those that grow in NATURE, minimally processed (transformed/preserved in a traditional or innovative way; fewer additives, better and much better if all of them are natural), SUSTAINABLE (produced in healthy soil using clean water, respecting the environment and biodiversity) AND ETHICALLY PRODUCED (towards humans, animals and all living beings involved).

Pasta prepared with vegetables from the orchards of Segantini Park, a public park in Milan, Italy: 3 types of courgette (raw and blanched (or boiled for a few minutes)), blanched green beans, basil and a little garlic. The crunchy touch of the pasta is given by macambo, dried and roasted seeds of a tropical tree cousin of cacao (Theobroma bicolor) from the Ecuadorian Amazon. This macambo was produced in agroforestry systems by families of the Kichwa ethnic group and are in Milan as part of a project that tries to create direct contact between producers and consumers on a global scale. The pasta is seasoned with saffron, parmesan, salt and olive oil.

This definition points out two fundamental concepts: NATURE and SUSTAINABILITY that includes ethical production.

What is nature?

Nature is all living and inanimate beings that make up the earth and that interact with each other in a balance where matter and energy circulate. Nature follows its own order and is governed by constant laws that human beings can know but cannot modify.

Photo taken at Mashpi a luxury Lodge nestled between lower montane rainforest and cloud forests (70 percent of which is primary forest), located within the Metropolitan District of Quito, Ecuador. Mashpi is a private natural reserve that works hand-in-hand with the community living in the areas surrounding, implementing an innovative program in which they, as well as Lodge employees, become shareholders in the enterprise. The communities are also the primary providers of agricultural and other food products and supplies that are used at the lodge.

Many humans (Homo sapiens) think that we are superior to all living beings, despite being one of the youngest species on earth and not knowing if we will ever live as long as bacteria or plants. We are also a very small part of life on Earth.

A study published in 2018 that quantifies life on Earth in terms of carbon (C), a common element of all living beings, shows that plants are the most abundant living forms representing 82.5%. Then we find the tiny bacteria that represents 14.2% of the life on Earth and after the fungi representing 2.2%. Bacteria and fungi are everywhere including IN and ON us influencing our health (see post on the Microbiome). Then there are the algae that represent 0.7% and finally the animals, the group to which we belong which represents 0.4% of life on earth.1

Figure adapted from the publication The biomass distribution on Earth. Archaea, bacteria, and viruses are found within the group bacteria.


Fundación Centro las Gaviotas in Colombia has developed the following sustainability formula:

4 x 4 x 42 / B

it means that human beings cannot live: more than 4 minutes without breathing proper air, more than 4 days without proper water, more than 42 days without nourishment and for all this to be possible the Earth must be covered with at least  60% of Forest, of green, including the plankton that lives in water of the oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, etc. This is the only way to maintain a proper atmospheric dynamic that allows human life or 78.1% nitrogen (N2), 20.9% oxygen (O2), 0.9% argon (Ar) and very little other gases including carbon dioxide (CO2, 0.04%).

The oxygen (O2) from the air that we need to live is produced by green beings thanks to a substance called chlorophyll. Chlorophyll reacts with CO2 in the presence of sunlight. These green beings are plants as well as bacteria and algae that feed on dead matter previously transformed by fungi, bacteria or animals such as worms. Respiration produces CO2 which is essential in the production of oxygen and sugars. Part of these sugars are stored in roots that feed bacteria and fungi from soil. Some fungi associate with the roots of plants forming mycorrhiza (myco=fungus and rhiza=root), a beneficial symbiosis for both organisms. Together they can travel big distances to get water and nutrients they need to live. Mycorrhizae connect with each other and at the same time interact with bacteria and some animals forming a very efficient communication and exchange system known as “Wood Wide Web”.

Representation of the Wood Wide Web of a Douglas fir trees forest. The green dots are the trees (the size of the dot is relative to the trunk diameter). The black dots show the potion of Rhizopogon a type of mycorrhiza used in the study. The blue and pink lines show the connections. Taken from the article of Dave Hansford. Worth reading!!

There is a complex and perfect balance between life and death and life and life. The community we are part of is fascinating!  

The Amisacho collective in the Ecuadorian Amazon is producing short videos. The concepts transmitted allow a clear understanding of how the Amazon rainforest works, the cycles of nature, how they influence the planet’s climate and individual and collective solutions to live in a respectful way.

If we zoom in on the group of animals, we will note that the largest segment is represented by fish (30%) and that all together arthropods, mollusks, nematodes, annelids and cnidarians represent 63.6% of all animals. Humans represent 2.5% of animals while birds and wild mammals together represent only 0.4% and cattle 4.2%.1 This means that in terms of carbon (C) there are 5 times more humane than all wild birds and mammals combined, and nearly twice as many livestock as humans.

Figure adapted from the publication The biomass distribution on Earth.

It is evident that we have NOT been paying attention to our environment and that our activities are impacting biodiversity.

Sustainability concerns us and our activities and deals with three elements: the environment, society and the economy. Of these 3, the economy is not part of nature, however, the narrative about the importance of money that first appeared about 5,000 years ago with the appearance of the first coins is so strong that today we cannot perceive the economy outside of the human context. 

All human economic activity depends on nature. It is estimated that globally, nature provides services worth approximately US 125 trillion annually.2

Humanity is using more resources that the Earth manages to regenerate. The challenge is to continue our lives and our activities without depleting these resources, and restoring those already depleted with a population that continues growing. We are the first generation aware of this. Let’s start acting by eating!


The human activity dedicated to food production is agriculture that first appeared about 12,000 years ago. Agriculture deals with domestication of plants and animals.

Farmers have domesticated some living beings learning from them and from nature, observing and experimenting, a very interesting and important job that has allowed the development of humanity. After the Second World War, the green revolution began in which agriculture was industrialized. This industrialization or dehumanization together with large-scale global trade has contributed to the current social, environmental and economic imbalances.

Agriculture is against nature but it can be respectful if it respects nature as is done by agroecological and regenerative farmers around the world.

Today there are many problems related with food: overweight and malnutrition, waste, environment destruction and loss of biodiversity. Even though small farmers who produce in an area below 2 hectares of the worlds food and protect food diversity, many of them live in extreme poverty. Let’s do what we can to help these farmers be successful and in turn, we will all prosper! 

Karina Bautista explains to Catalan chef Joan Roca how Huerta Luna works on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos, Ecuador. Karina practices regenerative agriculture, growing non-invasive introduced products that have adapted to local environmental conditions and identifying the best adapted varieties. The challenge now is to introduce the new flavors to the table of the local community and foreign visitors. Galapagos imports most of its food from the mainland.

What can we do?

First of all, let’s inform ourselves because knowledge is essential.

Let’s be smart consumers and remember that our demand and our everyday actions can generate positive changes. Let’s buy local, seasonal, socially and environmentally responsible products and let’s support farmers who work respecting nature locally and globally.

Let’s practice urban agriculture respecting nature and learning from nature, thus building resilient, green, inclusive and sustainable cities. One pot at a time – remembering that to be a respectful farmer we must learn many things and be open to new ideas.

Let’s cook more often using local, seasonal, socially and environmentally responsible products to know, taste and experience new flavors. Let’s not be afraid to use unusual vegetables, “ugly” produce that may not be the perfect specimen of what we are used to seeing in the grocery store, try wild products that we are not use to eating and become aware of the importance of dietary diversity. Let’s not forget that cooking is an act of love towards ourselves and the people for whom we cook!  

I highly recommend the Radio Semilla podcast (only available in Spanish) of the Red de Guardianes de Semillas who, with a relaxed vibe and broad vision, speak of social, environmental and economic regeneration with local solutions. With a different approach, the podcast Food Talks (only available in English), is also worth a listen. Both are fantastic, informative and fun!

To improve the food system, changes are needed from the production to the table, from those who grow food to those who eat it, and all those who move the food in between! Remember that food is directly connected with the farmers, the land, the watersheds and the climate; and that our health is a reflection of the quality and quantity of the food we consume. In the end, it is all – and we are all – interconnected! Let’s take care of one another!

Cooking at the inauguration event of the kitchen built by the volunteers of the Segantini Park in Milan, Italy, during a beautiful summer afternoon.

By M. Salomé Gachet

PNAS, 2018. Nar-On, Y.M., et al. The biomass distribution on Earth
2 WWF. 2018. Living Planet Report 2018 (Summery)

A history of composting

A curious man enters one of the orchards of the Segantini Park and finds Sergio and Luca. He’s Junior, a young man who is passionate about the land and eager to know how we grow plants in the park, and why? He also works the land there and, because of the pandemic, he has been trying to do it for a living since last year. He tells us that he has not studied agriculture, that he learned the basics in his native Cuba where all the children and young people cultivate the land after school, “I work hard for a child,” he tells us.

Sergio and Luca show Junior our worm compost that has been working for the past two years. Depending on the time of year, the compost is made in a period between 3 and 6 months. Junior tells us that it could be more efficient and, if we want, he can show us how to do it. Salomé, who is very interested in home composting, gets involved and immediately organizes a visit to Gaggiano where Junior works.

The “Associazione Parco Segantini” is formed by a group of people who share a love for agriculture and respect for nature. Together they take care of a 15,000 square meter reforested area and 3,000 square meters of shared orchards. After work on Sunday noon, they get together to talk and share.

To Gaggiano by bike to make earth

It was a Sunday with good weather at the beginning of May when 5 people, Francesca, Nicolò, Enrico, Ivana and Salomé, arrived by bike at the garden center where Junior works.

We met Junior, who welcomed us with enthusiasm and immediately showed us how the orchard/plant garden works. In the orchard, Junior grows a wide variety of vegetables that are disappearing. Due to globalization, food diversity is in danger. Fortunately, there are people like Junior working to recover it.

His way of cultivating not only has a practical approach, a synergistic garden in full respect for nature and relationships with various organisms, but it is also a philosophy of life! His garden highlights the importance of mother earth as well as a non-consumeristic lifestyle that values relationships.

Junior told us that when he arrived in Lombardy, he wondered what he could offer that land and that particular place. He saw that in the vicinity there were rice fields and a rice factory that produced the bran of the grains as a waste product. As he later pointed out, bran is an important ingredient in his compost. Also nearby, Junior has access to cows from which he takes manure as well as pieces of wood from the trees that border the vivarium, both of which are the ideal substrates for decomposing microorganisms.

Another way to compost

Let’s get to work, first we collect all the ingredients we would need:

  1. straw
  2. rice bran
  3. manure
  4. molasses (water saturated with sugar, about half a liter)
  5. freshly cut grass
  6. pieces of bark with microorganisms (branches with bark)*
  7. water

* The microorganisms can be found at the base of large trees, just below the first layer of soil. They are like thin white cobwebs. In the absence of these, you can find pre-packed, ready-to-use microorganisms for purchase. In Italy, for example, there is a product called Top Crop from Microvita.

When we went to collect the ingredients, we observed the land around the garden center. Many rice fields were not yet productive but instead were dry land waiting to be fertilized and irrigated.

We start by making a small fire that will be completely covered with the rice bran and will slowly burn until it becomes active black carbon (charcoal), rich in minerals. The bran burns slowly and, little by little, we add more bran that strangely does not produce a flame, but instead, a delicious smell.

He explains that the combustion process (the burning) helps to release minerals. As a result of the combustion process, charcoal is formed. (Charcoal can can also be purchased). Any straw that decomposes easily and does not need to be burned could also be used in place of charcoal.

Meanwhile, on the ground, we draw a circle of 1 meter in diameter. Junior explained that a good compost should be as high as the circumference of its base (1 meter).

While we waited for the rice bran to burn, we went to eat a delicious barbecue with friends.

The recipe

When we return, we proceed to arrange the layers to create the compost pile:

We start with the straw, then the shredded grass, then the pieces of bark with microorganisms, a little cow manure (NB: for a compost in the city, raw leftovers found in the kitchen can also be used (just remember not to use meat products as this may attract rats and/or other rodents) and a good stream of water.

The proportion of ingredients is 3 (parts of dry matter: straw and bark pieces) to 1 (part of wet matter: grass, manure). The dry matter adds carbon (C) while the wet adds nitrogen (N).

One could also add a little finished compost (as is done in the Segantini park) as an inoculator (due to the presence of worms).

We add straw again, then grass, microorganisms from the envelope (commercially available), molasses, pieces of branches, grass and then water.

The sequence should be as follows: dry, wet, dry, wet … and in between the microorganisms and water. With all this good “food” for the soil, Junior tells us that earthworms will come too.

We continue like this until the pile reaches one meter in height.

At that point, we return to our rice bran, which has meanwhile been turned into charcoal. We extinguish the fire using a lot of cold water and spread the finished charcoal on top of the compost pile. The wet rice bran will regulate the moisture and release the minerals.

The pile is covered with a black plastic to increase the rate of the decomposition process (it helps to keep it warm and humid). The compost pile will reach a very high temperature of up to 70 degrees Celsius(158 degrees Fahrenheit) during the first few days! This allows pathogens to be eliminated.

After about 5 days, Junior will turn the compost with a pitchfork, reconstituting the pile, a process that introduces air (most importantly oxygen) and will cover it again. The compost pile will be turned the same way a total of 5 times (about every 5 days).

Compost transformation will occur in approximately 1 month. If left uncovered, it would take much longer.

When the compost is ready it will be reduced by about half its initial size.

Coincidentally, that Sunday was May 9, Mother’s Day. Junior makes us notice that together we celebrate our “pacha mama” (mother earth) by making her a cake.

We bike back home, happy with a new perspective on compost, microorganisms, rice waste, and respect for the earth.

By Francesca Mastrangelo and M. Salomé Gachet

Natural resourses: LIMITED!

As we saw in post 2, to produce food, natural resources (air, water, soil, biodiversity) and energy are needed. Food production is just one of the many human activities that have an impact on the planet’s limited resources.

Regarding food, are we consuming more that the earth produces? Is there enough food to feed everyone?  

Today we produce food to feed 10 billion people1 for a planet which is currently home to around 7.7 billion.2 No wonder every year we waste ca. 1/3 of the food produced (post 3)) and 1.9 billion people are overweight!3.  And still, there are 821 million undernourished people!4

Domingo de los Colorados, Ecuador, medium and large companies produce tropical fruits such as pineapples for local and international markets. Most of them are grown as monocultures. They represent a source of income and food for families in the area. Photo by Karla Gachet.

To understand why this happens, it is important to learn about two concepts which are key for sustainability: Biocapacity and Ecological Footprint.

Biological capacity

Earths Biocapacity is a quantitative way of measuring the natural resources that the earth produces each year (in global hectares or gha) to allow human life (clean water and air, biodiversity, healthy soils, shelter and medicines).5,6,7

It refers to the amount of productive area that is available to generate natural resources and to absorb the waste (ecosystem services).5-7.

The calculated Biocapacity for year 2007 was 1.8 gha.5-7

Ecological Footprint

The Human Ecological Footprint is a quantitative way of measuring the demand that human activity puts on nature. It refers to the consumption of productive land (resources in gha) of each person (biologically productive land and water area required to produce all the resources an individual, population, or activity consumes, and to absorb the waste they generate).5-7

The calculated world average Ecological Footprint for year 2007 was 2.7 gha.5-7

At the individual level, the Ecological Footprint refers to: the food we eat (energy, land, water, biodiversity), the water we use and the energy we consume (at home, to move around, to work, to live!).

Biocapacity, Ecological Footprint and Population

From the numbers above, it becomes evident that in 2007, our global consumption (Ecological Footprint: 2.7 gha) is much higher than the earth’s capacity to recover (Biocapacity: 1.8 gha).

To live sustainably, our Ecological Footprint (that of all humanity) should never exceed the Biocapacity of the earth.

The figure below shows the Ecological footprint and Biocapacity from 1960 to 2010 and the population growth up until 2019.

In 2007, humanity used resources equivalent to one and a half planets. If the trend continues, by 2050, 2 planets will be needed.5-7

Humanity is already using more resources than the earth can regenerate. This is known as overshoot, and each year this occurs, the biological debt increases with extreme consequences such as the loss of diversity (biological and cultural), migration and climate change. And the population keeps growing…  

A stall selling fruit and vegetables at the La Vega Central market in Santiago de Chile also known as “Feria Mapocho”. From the colonial time, farmers gathered in the area of “​​La Chimba” to sell their products. Photo by Karla Gachet. The full story can be found here

Are we all using resources in the same way?

Well, the Biocapacity and the Ecological Footprint are not the same for all people in all nations. The Global Footprint Network provides online data clearly showing the situation of all countries in the world. Let’s take, as an example, the year 2016. In 2016, the Biocapacity and Ecological Footprint in the United States were 3.6 and 8.1 gha (-4.5, deficit), in Italy 0.9 and 4.4 gha (-3.5, deficit), in China 1.0 and 3.6  gha (-2.6, deficit), in Brazil 8.7 and 2.8 gha (+5.9, reserve), and in Gabon 22.1 and 2.3 gha (+19.8, reserve).

This means that from these 5 countries, only Gabon and Brazil would have natural reserves to consume what they do and more. However, in a global scale, Gabon and Brazil are unwillingly using their resources to maintain the lifestyles of overconsumption of USA, Italy and China.

In 2007, the 5 countries with the highest Ecological Footprint were: United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Denmark, Belgium and United States, while the countries with the highest Biocapacity were: Gabon, Bolivia, Mongolia, Canada and Australia.7

Learn more about the global situation and find out about the situation in your own country using the interactive online platform of the Global Footprint Network. It’s really worth checking out!

With all this information, it seems that Ecological Footprint is related to human wellbeing, wouldn’t you agree?  

The town of San Miguel is at the crossroads of the Cayapas River and San Miguel in the province of Esmeraldas in Ecuador. San Miguel is like an island in the river and it takes hours to get there by canoe from Borbón. From here they get “verde” (green cooking bananas) that they sell in Borbón. Photo by Karla Gachet.

Human Development and the Ecological Footprint:

Human Development can be ranked using the Human Development Index (HDI). The HDI is a number calculated based on life expectancy, education and per capita income of a person in a country.

The United Nation Development Program defines a high level of development with HDI scores of 0.8 or greater.7  

Considering again the data from 2007, in an ideal economic, social and environmental planet, all countries should have a HDI equal or higher to 0.8 and an Environmental Footprint that would not exceed 1.8 gha (or the earths biocapacity).7 

No country on earth meets both conditions.

Interestingly, low-income countries which have abundant natural resources (high Biocapacity) have too small Ecological Footprints to meet the basic needs of food, shelter, health and sanitation of their populations.

The woman drinking mate in the photo is Doris Peranchiguay. Doris lives with her family on the Island of Teuquelin in Chile. Like many of the island’s families, they live off the potato harvest. Photo by Karla Gachet.

Humanity faces two big challenges:

  1. for highly developed countries, to maintain peoples well-being reducing the demand on nature and
  2. for developing nations, to guarantee the well-being of society without increasing Ecological Footprints.

Every person on the planet has the right to live better. However, the well-being of human societies depends of biological capital (Biocapacity) and therefore, human comforts (security, material needs, health, social relations, etc.). We must consider effective long-term resource management in order to address and reverse ecological degradation.7 

To delve deeper into this topic, we recommend that you read our post that talks about Environmental Justice.

But, how can we explain that resources from low-income biologically-rich countries are being used to satisfy other countries’ demands? Is this land grabbing?

Land grabbing

Land grabbing is a process (usually violent) in which fertile agricultural land is privatized, usually for food corporation and mining companies. The GRAIN organization alerts that this global land grab could represent the end of small-scale farming, and rural livelihoods, in many places around the world.8

Using the data of GRAIN, Baveye et al., have published a map of the worlds land grab in 2008 which shows that China, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and other countries own vast amounts of land abroad. For example, China in 2008 owned ca. 2 million hectares distributed in Philippines, Laos, Australia, Russia, Kazakhstan, Cameroon, Uganda and Tanzania.9   

It would be useful to see what is going on today. To learn more about this argument, check out the publications from GRAIN. They are well worth a read!

If the land no longer belongs to the people living there, or even the country, what happens with the rights of those people and with their well-being? What happens with the land and the ecological services nature provides?    

View of a shrimp farm on the way to Bolivar in the province of Esmeraldas in Ecuador. Shrimp farmers began to gain ground in Bolivar to the point of depriving the community of the right to their own mangrove. Maria (cover photo), along with other shell women, faced powerful people. In the end they were able to stop the expansion of the shrimp farms and save part of their mangrove swamp. Photo by Karla Gachet.

Human well-being and natural resource  

Human well-being depends on biodiversity (species richness and rarity, biomass density, primary productivity and genetic diversity) and the services that a healthy ecosystem provides (food, water, fiber, medicine, energy, spiritual, ethic, climate regulation, energy and matter exchange, etc.). 7

All human economic activity depends on nature. It’s estimated that, globally, nature provides services worth around US$125 trillion a year.6

Unluckily, biological diversity is being lost. For example, the loss of animal diversity, measured using Living Planet Index between 1970 and 2014, shows that the overall species population of vertebrates has declined 60% (89% loss in South and Central America). The loss of fresh water species was 89%.6

For more information on endangered species, have a look the website of the IUCN Red List, which is a critical indicator of the health of the world’s biodiversity.

A healthy planet has enabled development of modern human society. Would it be possible to continue human development without healthy natural systems (biodiversity)?

The answer depends on us and on our capacity to change, adapt and create!

We are the first generation that has a clearer picture of the value of nature and the enormous impact we have on it.6

And why not begin with the understanding of our own personal situation!

In Topanga, California, Karla and her family are making a small vegetables garden during the quarantine caused by the Covid-19 pandemic. Photo by Karla Gachet.

Personal Ecological Footprint

The Ecological Footprint is different for every person. It is related to individual actions. Even within a nation, the Ecological Footprint is not the same for all.

People that buy food from abroad and travel a lot by car and plane have a higher Environmental Footprint than people consuming locally produce food, preferring moving by bike/public transport/walking and rarely flying.

There are online platforms that help to calculate our personal Ecological Footprint. However, we recommend that you search for a local platform within your city or country as they might include local parameters (energy, water, transportation and waste). Give it a try!!

Let’s calculate our personal Ecological Footprint together

We found a very interesting study from Legambiente, an environmental Italian association, analysing the ecological footprint of the city of Padua.10 This study provides a Table for a first calculation of the personal ecological footprint in a month in area (hectares, ha) from kilograms (Kg) of food consumed, kilowatts (KWh) of energy used at home and kilometres used in transport (Km).

We have reproduced the excel sheet from this study (download here). If you wish to help us, please download the sheet and send the completed version with your personal results via email ([email protected]) sharing with us your name and country from where you are sending it. If we reach a significant number, we will share the results in a post! 

This global problem is not new. In 2015, 193 countries belonging the United Nations countries, together with 150 leaders around the world, have agreed upon 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) to be met by year 2030. These goals aim to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure prosperity for all.11

Sustainable Development Goals

As shown in the figure bellow, the 17 goals put at the base, the importance of protecting nature to build a healthy society that will support a fair economy.

If we work together to achieve these goals, things will start to improve. Let’s give it a try!!

Importantly, all of these goals can be achieved by improving the food system. Food can be a good starting point to make changes. We all eat and our food choices have a direct impact on economy, society and the environment.

Achira and Chinese potato (malanga) stew accompanied by mustard greens, grown in Huerta Luna and prepared by chef Javier Farraye on Santa Cruz Island, Galapados, Ecuador. This producer-chef alliance is a proposal that wants to encourage the population of Galapagos to consume locally produced food, reducing the demand to import vegetables from the continent.

To better understand the impact of food on sustainability, the Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition has created a Food Sustainability Index. Data from 67 countries regarding food loss and waste, sustainable agriculture and nutritional challenges were analyzed and scored. The top 3 performing countries having policies and showing best practices in 2018 were France, the Netherlands and Canada.  It is possible to check out the results and the scores of the participating countries –  maybe yours is on the list!

BBC Mundo has published a very interesting article regarding this topic which includes an online calculator showing the environmental impact of 34 common foods and beverages. They remark that the Ecological Footprint depends not only on the food, but also specifically how and where it was produced. This is really worth checking out!


Human well-being will not be possible without preserving nature (ecological resources and services) which sustain economy and life.

However, as natural resources become scarcer than money, prosperity will depend on resource accounts (biocapacity) as much as it depends on Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and other financial values.

A new way of thinking and revaluing nature (healthy ecosystems) and the services they provide should be considered. It is amazing how many new business opportunities are being created valuing all resources of the ecosystem and being respectful with nature and with people.

And of course, now that you know all of these things, try to make an effort to more thoughtfully choose what you eat, how you move and how much energy and water you use. Our interest, creativity and willingness to make little changes can and will improve things. Let’s give it a try:)

By M. S. Gachet.

1 Holt-Giménez E., et al. 2012. We Already Grow Enough Food for 10 Billion People … and Still Can’t End Hunger
2 Data World Bank. Population
3 WHO. Obesity and overweight
4 UN. Food
5 WWF. 2018. Living Planet Report 2018 (Full report)
6 WWF. 2018. Living Planet Report 2018 (Summery)
7 Global Footprint Network 2010. Ecological Footprint Atlas 2010
8 GRAIN. 2008. Seize: The 2008 land grab for food and financial security
9 Baveye, P.C., et al. 2011. From Dust Bowl to Dust Bowl: Soils are Still Very Much a Frontier of Science
10 Legamabiente. The Ecological Footprint of the city of Padua
11 UN. Sustainable Development Goals

The plan for today: Start a Garden!

If we think about the increase in population (post 1) and the effect of human activities on global warming (posts 2, 3 and 4)), it seems like we have surpassed any chances of sustainability.

We really need to start regenerating! So, what can we do? Walk, ride a bike or take public transport, turn off the lights and unplug electronic equipment we are not using, use LED lights, don’t overheat or over cool, take shorter showers, reevaluate, reconceptualize, restructure, redistribute, relocate, reduce, reuse, recycle and, regarding food: pay attention to what we buy, from who we buy, at what price, buy local, seasonal and only what we are going to eat. Also and very important, let’s support the work of farmers producing with agroecological=permacultural=organic practices (taking care of the ecosystem: soil (post 5), water and biodiversity) and politicians willing to take actions in their favor, in favor of humanity!

What else can we do? Start a garden!

Luckily, we don’t need an actual garden. In the cities, we can do it in a terrace, balcony or even outside the window. Also, we could get together with our family or community and use common areas such as terraces, patios, and rooftops.

When soil is unavailable, plastic lined wooden crates, costume made tables, pods or any recipient can be filled with garden soil or a “substrate” made from local materials (e.g. compost made with vegetable peels, coffee and tea). And if substrates are unavailable, plants can be even grown on water enriched with a soluble fertilizer.1

Aromatic plants growing outside the kitchen of the trendy restaurant “Carlo e Camilla en Segheria” in Milan, Italy. This restaurant is inside an old sawmill.

In industrialized countries, startups have even created fully atomized and conditions controlled vertical farms.

Many cities around the world are doing urban gardening, also known as urban farming or urban agriculture!

Have a look at the amazing work done by the Green Bronx Machine with school students in one of the poorest and unsafe neighborhoods in New York city and not only there! This is very inspiring! 

Urban agriculture  

Urban agriculture is an industry growing, raising, processing and distributing a diversity of agricultural products from plants and animals, using human, land and water resources, products, and services found in and around the urban area (village, town, city or metropolis). The scale of such practices may vary form subsistence-oriented cultivation, recreational type of agriculture, small-scale, semi-commercial gardeners and livestock keepers, to medium and large-scale commercial enterprises.2

Urban garden next to the old wall of the upper city of Bergamo, Italy.

This form of farming integrates horticulture production techniques with environmentally friendly technologies suited to cities, such as rainwater harvesting and household waste management1 (except for the fully automated vertical farms that have a higher energy consumption due to the use of artificial light).

The following figure shows general information about urban growth and farmers:

As we can see in the figure, urban areas are growing (and will grow more in the future) demanding jobs, land, water, and food. For this reason it is important to consider the multiple benefits that urban agriculture offers:2

There is even an award given by the Milan Urban Food Policy Pact, acknowledging the innovation and economic and political efforts of cities in developing sustainable food systems and promoting health diets.  

Urban agriculture plays an important role in building resilient cities!

But what is resilience? According to FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) “resilience is the ability of people, communities or systems that are confronted by disasters or crises to withstand damage and to recover rapidly.”3

Urban agriculture encourages agricultural practices in urban areas to build cities that are resilient, green, inclusive, and sustainable.2 Additionally, urban gardens can be highly productive. FAO studies show that a 1 square meter (m2) garden can produce any one of the following products: ca. 200 tomatoes a year, 36 heads of lettuce every 60 days, 10 cabbages every 90 days or 100 onions every 120 days.1

These strawberry plants grow happily in an urban garden in Bern, Switzerland.

Across the world, cities in both developing and industrialized countries are including urban agriculture and forestry in their climate change strategies and actions plans. For example:2

– in Toronto, Canada, financial support to community based agriculture projects is giving for the formation of community orchards and gardens, home gardens; promotion of composting of organic waste and rainwater harvesting; supporting farmer’ markets and preferential procurement of food;
– in Durban, South Africa, it is being implemented the promotion of productive green roofs for stormwater management, biodiversity and food production (testing the replacement of crops for maize to adapt to lower rainfall) and community reforestation and management;
– in Callao, Peru, urban agriculture is being included in municipal development plans and special municipal structures are being set up. Additionally, municipal budget is allocated to urban agriculture.

I hope now we all agree that urban agriculture is a fantastic practice offering many benefits to city inhabitants. And that by doing city gardens/farms, we can actively help mitigating climate change while profiting from fresh food.

In post 5 we saw the benefits of using agroecology for growing our food.

Let’s keep in mind that the type of urban agriculture is highly dependent on the location and the agricultural method use for planting. For example, the farming performed in the household space (on-plot) is often destined for subsistence while the one performed using publicly available or private open space in the city (off-plot) can be intended to commercial farming.2 

Importantly, all biological methods (e.g. biodynamic, biointensive) aim to have and maintain a healthy and fertile soil where strong and healthy plants grow respecting all living organisms within the ecosystem.4 Which means, that there are many ways of doing our garden, we just have to take care of the soil and respect all life forms.   

The Segantini Park in Milan-Italy, is a park designed and created by citizens together with the municipal administration. Inside the park, citizens take care of 3000 square meters vegetables garden and 15000 square meters of a reforested area. The field has been prepared using the biointensive method taught by Fernando Pia, a farmer from Patagonia.

Let’s remember that within a healthy ecosystem co-exists animals, plants, fungi, algae and bacteria and therefore, a balance between all these living forms is the key for sustainability (sustainable = lasting for a long time).

So, the long term success of our biological garden will depend on achieving an equilibrium within our ecosystem (field, garden or balcony).

We will need time and patience to understand what is going on, the right association, nutrients and water requirements, composting, rotations, etc. But once we manage, it will be for sure very rewarding so let’s start experimenting!!! Let’s have fun learning from nature!!! 

But, where do we start?

In practice, to start we need healthy soil (post 5), seeds and clean water but before, we need a plan based on our space and needs.  

1.Select the Space and Design a Project

Plants need light for growing, so if possible, place the garden in a sunny and lighted place, close to a source of water and away from sources of contamination (such as building structures painted with lead).

And if you cannot chose, select the place you have available. I will plant in a community park and in my balcony, and you?

After selecting the right spot design a project based on you preferences and needs. What do you eat, which plants might favor your ecosystem, which are annual, etc.  

Keep in mind that you can be creative using already available containers and most importantly, you can start slowly, with one plant in a small pot or, plant many and learn from their interactions trying to grow part of your food. Maybe you are lucky and can grow directly in the soil! So many variable, how exiting! 

Preparing seedlings for planting.

Inform yourself about the time for planting, the water requirements, which plants are good neighbors, the light they need to grow, etc.

Remember that plants are living organisms and if not in nature (specially in direct contact with the land), they need you to take care of them!  

2.What to Plant and When

As already mention, the selection of which plants to grow and when depends on our own eating preference, the plant itself, where you live and the season of the year.

In four season countries the calendar defines the seeding time. In spring, crops producing in summer are seeded (e.g. tomato, potato) while in autumn, winter crops (e.g. cabbage, broccoli) are planted. Experience farmers considered that the optimal cropping time is between the last and the first light frost in spring and autumn, respectively.5  

In tropical regions, best time for seeding is not so evident and will depend on rain season and other environmental factors.5

We can get the information about cropping seasons at the local Ministry of Agriculture, from local farmers and/or in online networks. Also, seeding and harvest times are usually indicated in seed packages. In cities, small plants to be transplanted can be usually acquired during the planting periods. 

Also, if the weather is favorable (cropping seasons longer than 6 months), it is possible to cultivate some vegetables more than one time within the season.5 

Interestingly, some people also looks at the phase of the moon to select the best time for planting. It is known to influence crop productivity and it for sure influence water levels inside the plant. 

As we mention there are different biological methods of growing food following agroecological principles.

3. Seeds

When talking about seeds, now days, there is a big debate regarding genetically modified seeds (genetically modified organisms or GMO).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), GMO are organisms (plants, animals or microorganisms) in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally. The food produce with GM seeds or GM food is developed because there is some perceived advantage either to the producer or consumer such as lower price, greater benefit (in terms of durability or nutritional value) or both.6

A large proportion of the world’s farmers are disillusioned with GM crops and object to their production. They perceive more environmental damage that conventional agriculture and harmful human health impacts of GM crops and the chemicals used with them.7

Also, there are implications for the rights of farmers to own their crops due to the existence of intellectual property rights of GM seeds.7  

Interestingly, humans have modified seeds since ancient times by crossing species and selecting resistant varieties or flavor/color appealing crops. This man modified natural process takes longer time to be produce than GMO and involves nature in the adaptation processes.

We will talk in more in detail about seeds and GM seeds in a future post, keep tuned!

Seeds can be planted directly on the soil or planted in small trays and only when plants have germinated and grown a bit, they are transplanted into the garden or final pots.

Sowing arugula in seedlings.

Once plants have established themselves, in order to help conserve moisture, mulch (layer of material (straw, shredded leaves, dried grass, etc.)) applied to the soil surface) is recommended.

If possible, select GMO free seeds that are open pollinated, biodiverse and local varieties, maybe antic crops.

The second year of cropping and depending on the amount of plants, it is possible to collect and keep our own seeds! If you are interested on this, check out the manual of Peter Dobelan (Spanish version available online) that give a very nice explanation and cite different sources for consultation.8 

Here,  we can find a some biointensive growers that can help us to get good seeds for “true food” in different countries.

4.The space and the seeds

The selection of the seeds depends on the space you have available for their growth. In literature, there is a lot of information about how many plants can be seeded in a square meter (m2) or a square foot. For example, in 0.5 m2 space, it is recommended to sow 1 plant of tomato.

In the biointensive method however, that uses a greater soil depth (60 cm), allows to optimize the space placing “good neighbor plants” very close together to create a living mulch and at the same time optimizes the use of land, water and work, producing high yields of food.5   

Arugula growing on my balcony inside old wooden drawers.

Interestingly, plants as human get along well with some plants and not with others. When you are planting it is very important to consider which plants are good neighbors and which plants are bad neighbors, and the requirement of nutrients to feed the soil accordingly.

To build a strong and healthy garden it is mandatory to keep a healthy ecosystem around it. A local healthy ecosystem, like in nature with forest, local bushes  and plants with flowers, will welcome beneficial insects that will fight against harmful once. In our urban ecosystem, to accomplish this, we will plant perennial plants such as Borage and Ortica (that we can also eat) together with poppy flowers and margaritas that can be found in the surrounding parks. 

5.Nourishing and protect the Soil (Composting and mulching)

As we mention in post 5, the most important part of a healthy garden is to have healthy soil. The soil provide all nutrients require for plants growth and is the home of an immense variety of microorganisms.

Composting is the natural process of rotting in which microorganisms recycle organic material (e.g. leaves, leftovers from the kitchen) and transform them into humus (high carbon containing organic matter that plants uptake  to live).9

This process can take place in the presence (aerobic) or absence (anaerobic) of oxygen. However, aerobic composting (in presence of air which contains ca. 21% oxygen) is faster and more used.9 

Aerobic composting requires air, moisture, microorganisms, nutrients, soil, organic matter and temperature to obtain humus. Under the right conditions, a certain type of microorganisms start to grow and proliferate raising the temperature from 20 to 45°C, initiating decomposition of organic matter. At this temperature, a second type of heat active microorganisms start multiplying increasing even more the temperature (60-70°C) which favors the killing of pathogens and seed weeds. Then temperature will start dropping allowing the activation of other organism such fungi that will continue the decomposing process until the formation of humus (2-4 months for young compost up to a year to obtain a mature one).9

The daily dump composters are terracotta vases used successfully in India to treat organic waste at home. Photo taken at the “Brocken Nature” exhibition at the Triennale Museum.

The idea is to become more sustainable and take the unused part of our food to return organic matter (carbon) and nutrients back to the soil. Isn’t it great!

It is also very important to protect the soil. You probably noticed that fertile soils are always covered by vegetation (either leaves or other plants) in association with many living organisms. This protection known as mulching, has multiples advantages for the ecosystem (generates a microclima that keeps moist, heat and allows aeration, provides nutrients to the microorganisms, protects the soil from rain and wind and generates uniform conditions for growing) and for the farmer (less tillage as the soil is softer, less weeding as consequence of suffocation, less watering as humidity is kept and less use of fertilizers thanks to the mulching decomposing).4

Following the principals of organic agriculture there are 3 ways to mulch: using rest materials (such as hay, leaves, grass); applying superficial composting (immature compost (e.g. peat) on the surface protected by leaves or grass) and; the coverage with living plants (the more natural way of protection).4    

Artichokes growing in the Segantini park in Milan, Italy.

Let’s protect and build a healthy soil and make our garden reflect natures biodiversity.5


Water is a precious natural resource. Without water there is no life! However, this vital resource is not well distributed in the planet. Water scarce in many parts of the world. In fact, “ensuring access to clean water and sanitation for all” (sustainable development goal number 6 (SDG6)) is one of the 17 goals that the world aims to achieve by  2030.10

Plants require a lot of water to produce food!

In cites rich in water resources, an obvious solution is to use municipal water. However, this is not a sustainable or economical alternative. The amount of energy use to treat water for human consumption is high and this level of purity is not needed for agriculture.

Well, according to FAO, 1 m2 garden requires 1000 liters (L) of clean water a year (less than 3 L per day). To ensure a regular water supply, micro-gardeners can store and channel rainwater via a system of gutters and pipes. Rainwater is virtually free (after the investment in harvesting equipment) and usually of good quality. From a roof of 20 m2, growers can collect 2 000 L of water for every 100 mm of rainfall, enough for the year-round cultivation of a micro-garden of 2 m2.1

Let’s keep in mind that the amount of water needed will depend of course on your weather conditions.

We will talk in detail about water and other great initiatives/people that use this vital resource in an intelligent way, so keep tune!

7. Maintain a healthy ecosystem

As mention before, to create a healthy soil (post 5) and therefore, healthy gardens and nutritious food, we need to take care of the ecosystem.

In cities, this can be challenging. However, we can ask our governments for more parks and to plant local trees, bushes and flowers in urban areas. Also, let’s vote for politicians that propose and support green projects and initiatives.

Inside our gardens, we can do our share! Let’s cultivate local perennial species that will support conserving the native ecosystem and our food garden.

Perennial species (crops, forages, shrubs and trees) are those able to regrow and continue to produce grains, seeds, fruits and biomass after a single harvest. In fact, perennial systems could transform agriculture for smallholders and family farmers because perennial crops (grains, oil seeds and legumes), are more flexible and resilient to climate.11

Rosemary, oregano, nettle and salvia are examples of perennial plants that we can grow in our balcony. Most, don’t require extensive care and can be used for flavoring our food!

Depending on where we live, we could to do more for conserving our ecosystem. For example, bats help to control mosquitoes (in Italy people place bat houses in tall trees so they can also live inside the cities). Isn’t it cool!

Keeping gardens productive should be “relatively” simple. Depending on what we crop, we can fertilized regularly at low cost if using the compost produced from household organic waste. Pests are controlled by non-chemical means, intercropping aromatic herbs that naturally repel insects, such as basil, parsley and mint and if necessaire we can use additional controls such as colored sticky traps and insect proof nets.1

Building gardens in cities can help achieving SDG11 (make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable) and SDG13 (take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts)10 and at the same time provides us with true food.

Arugula growing on my balcony inside old wooden drawers and almost ready to be eaten.

In addition, cities can trigger a circular economy model for food, since they can source food grown in a regenerative and local way (where appropriate), rethink food waste by reducing avoidable waste and project the transformation of this waste into new products that generate new sources of economy and; design and market healthier food products, helping consumers to reorient their preferences and habits to support regenerative food systems (healthy, sustainable diets with greater biodiversity).12

Let’s all be part of the solution and plant a garden today!!

By M. S. Gachet

1 FAO. Urban and Peri-urban Horticulture.
2 The World Bank, 2013. Urban Agriculture. Findings from Four City Case Studies. Urban development series.
3 FAO. Resilience.
4 Kreuter, Marie-Luise. Orto e Giardino Biologico (2003)
5 Jeavons, J. and Cox. C. El Huerto Sustentable: Cómo obtener suelos saludables productos sanos y abundantes (2017)
6 WHO. Food Safety. Frequently asked questions on genetically modified foods.
7 FAO. Genetically Modified Crops: Seeds of Hope or Deception?
8 Peter Donelan. Cultivo de Semillas (2009).
9 FAO. Composting process and techniques.
10 UN. Sustainable Development Goals.
11 FAO. Perennial Agriculture: Landscape Resilience for the Future.
12 Ellen Macarthur Foundation, 2019: Cities and Circular Economy for Food.

V.I.S. (Very Important Soil)

In post 2, we saw that to produce food we need energy, soil, water and biodiversity. So now, let’s talk about soil!

Soil is a very complex natural resource. It contains all naturally occurring chemical elements and simultaneously combines solid, liquid and gaseous states. Soil is also one of the most biodiverse habitats on earth.1

The Segantini Park in Milan-Italy, is a park designed and created by citizens together with the municipal administration. Inside the park, citizens take care of 3000 square meters vegetables garden and 3000 square meters of a reforested area.

But, what is soil made of?

Around the world, soils are very diverse. They differentiate according to their physical, chemical and biological properties.1 There is a whole science behind soil and it is super interesting, especially if you are thinking about making your own garden.

Here some basics:

Soil is made of mineral particles (originated from the degradation of rocks), organic particles (originated from the degradation of organic matter (plants and animals)) and biota (living organisms).2

Soil particles leave tiny spaces between them (pores) that can be filled with air and/or water. The amount of water (and as a consequence the quantity of air) retained by the soil (infiltration) is important for plant growth.2

Living organisms moving in the soil help to aerate the soil favoring plant growing conditions.2 Soil is the home of an enormous biodiversity (plants, macrofauna (e.g. ants, termites, earthworms), mesofauna (mites, collembola), microfauna (protozoa, nematodes) and microflora (bacteria, fungi), from which little is known (with the exception of plants where ca. 90% species are known).3

Soil biodiversity plays a critical role in sustaining long term soil health and providing soil-based ecosystem services (see below).3

The soil and agriculture

Physical and chemical properties of the soil (see figure above) together with factors influencing soil formation (CLORPT: climate, organisms, relief, parent material and time) are largely responsible for soil fertility and consequently agricultural productivity.3

To improve soil fertility, external agricultural inputs, such as fertilizers and pesticides, are used. However, crop yields declined after several years of intense soil use, despite the continuous use and increasing application of these agricultural inputs.3

The strategy of improving soil fertility by adding exhausted minerals and controlling pests is obviously not the best solution!

In Santo Domingo de los Colorados, Ecuador, medium and large companies produce tropical fruits such as papaya for local and international markets. Most of them are grown as monocultures. They represent a source of income and food for families in the area. Photo by Karla Gachet.

It became necessary to think about the quality of the soil.

Soil quality considers the importance of the soil as a living system, with a wider role including not only biological productivity but also environmental quality (impacts on air and water) and the effects on plant and animal health.3

In recent years, the discussion of sustainable development has increased and the paradigms of “soil health” and “soil security” have emerged.3

According to FAO, a healthy soil has the continuous capacity to function as a vital living system, within ecosystem and land-use boundaries, to sustain biological productivity and to promote the quality of air and water environments, and maintain plant, animal, and human health.1

For a sustainable and resilient production system, maintaining soil stock nutrients is essential. However, soil stocks are linked to ecosystem functions via the soil biota (i.e. living organisms). Living organisms adapt to environmental change through natural selection (while the physical and chemical components do not) hence they play a central role in sustainable productivity and the provision of other ecosystem services (see below)3.

It is difficult to think that the conventional practice of adding missing nutrients (e.g. nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) can be applied to living organisms. There are so many living organisms in a healthy soil and probably many of them are endemic of a specific ecosystem. It will be very hard to achieve!

Ok, so what do we do?

It is more efficient to let the ecosystem take care of life within the soil and we take care of conserving the ecosystem.

Two men from the community of Boanamo, Yasuní, Ecuador, go out hunting for wild pig and monkeys near their home. They still use blow guns with darts poisoned with Curare, all of which they make themselves. Unfortunately, with the introduction of rifles, they over hunt and sell animal meat in the black market. Photo by Karla Gachet. The full story can be found here

A healthier soil

Soil security is a broader, multidimensional and integrative concept. Soil security is concerned with global environmental sustainability issues such as the maintenance and improvement of the global soil resource to produce food, fiber and fresh water, contribute to energy and climate sustainability and to maintain biodiversity and the overall protection of the ecosystem.3

To clarify the interactions between agroecology and a healthy soil, let’s use the example of agroforestry.

Agroforestry is an agricultural system in which trees and shrubs grow around or among crops or pasturelands.

Studies performed mostly in Africa (in tropical maize-based agroforestry systems) have shown that soil biota abundance (the number of living organisms) is higher in cultivations with trees than in the ones without them. Additionally, the biological activity (e.g. earthworm’s activity) is increased near trees producing larger quantities of fast decomposing biomass that is rich in nutrients (e.g. nitrogen).3

The benefits of agro-ecosystem synergies, such as those generated by tree-crop-soil-livestock interaction, are the reduction of external trade-offs (e.g. fertilizers, pesticides). Additional alternatives to reduce trade-offs favoring ecological synergies include crop rotation, intercropping and the pruning of trees to reduce competition for sunlight that at the same time generate biomass for mulching (or the coverage of the soil surface) helping to conserve soil, water, to improve fertility and to control erosion.3

Blanca Ashanga harvests corn in a field in the Quichua community of San Pedro Sumino, Napo, Ecuador. All the community works in what they call a ‘Minga’ where everyone contributes and harvests for the community. The proceeds of selling the corn will be used for services in the community. Photo by Karla Gachet.

Living in symbiosis with nature is challenging but possible! Small innovative farmers around the world are already doing it!3

Now, it becomes clear that a healthy soil does not only take care of food production, and is the home of an exuberant biodiversity but also, it also provides ecosystem services. But, what exactly are they?  

Soil-based ecosystem services

Soil-based ecosystem services are processes delivered by the soil (e.g. nutrient capture and cycling) that supply a service to the ecosystem (e.g. food production).

There are two types of services: agricultural and non-agricultural. The following text box explains them: 

A healthy soil sustains life, protects the soil, cleans the air, conserves biodiversity and keeps, stores and supplies water. But not only this, as we also saw on the previous post, soil has the potential to sequester CO2 from the atmosphere and mitigate climate change by conserving the forest while producing our food through agroecology.

In post 4, we also talked about nitrous oxide (N2O), an important greenhouse gas (GHG), remember? Well, N2O production is connected to agriculture and soil as well! Let’s see how.

Nitrogen and the soil

Nitrogen (N) is critical for plant growth.4 But even if there is a lot of N in the air, it cannot be directly taken in by plants. It needs to be transformed by the biological processes (e.g. bacterial) of mineralization, nitrification, immobilization and denitrification.2 At the end of the cycle, N goes back into the atmosphere.4 Importantly, there are certain bacteria capable of fixing N directly from the atmosphere forming the N-containing organic substance that plants can use.1 The following figure shows the nitrogen cycle:

Importantly, only a certain amount of nitrogen can be stored in the soil. The surplus (caused by the addition of nitrogen containing fertilizers), is lost in the atmosphere, in runoff and leaked resulting in contamination of the air, surface and groundwaters.4 This is how agriculture, due to an excess quantity of nitrogen containing fertilizers, produces N2O, a powerful GHG!

This is ecologically and economically unsustainable! However, if we understand the needs and the dynamics of a healthy soil, we can make these processes more efficient, avoid soil degradation (i.e. removal of nutrients and erosion) and reduce GHG emissions. 

The challenge of climate change, soil security and food security, requires a more productive and resilient agriculture with a better management of natural resources. It requires agroecology!

The international initiative 4 per 1000 aims to demonstrate that agriculture and specifically agricultural soils play a crucial role in achieving food security and reversing climate change (see post 4). Really worth checking it out!   


Agroecology, “the ecology of the food system”, is a science, a global movement for food security and sovereignty and also an agricultural practice. It is an evolving concept that can also be referred as permaculture, organic agriculture, eco-agriculture, conservation agriculture and minimum or no-tillage. Its main goal is to transform the food systems towards sustainability, supporting the balance between ecological soundness, economic viability and social justice.3

But, what is wrong with the conventional agriculture besides its unsustainable relationship to a healthy soil from which we just talked about?

Well, conventional agriculture over-emphasizes high yields (monoculture production) and short-term profit, that results in remarkable economic profits for some, at the cost of ecological degradation (e.g. soil erosion, loss of agrodiversity, pest outbreak) and social side effects (e.g. poverty, malnutrition, dependency, loss of livelihood diversity).3

Fortunately, these problems can be tackled with agroecology. Agroecology is a holistic strategy to produce food approaching ecological, economic and social sustainability!

Even though there are some general guidelines associated with target systems, regions and major soil groups, agroecology requires fine tunings to meet farmers’ needs and adapt to climate, edaphic (soil) and biological parameters of a specific local context.3

So, the soil is central to agriculture and therefore sustainable agriculture is essentially dependent on soil health.3

But farming is not a natural process. Humans domesticate nature and disturb the natural soil processes to produce food. How can it be sustainable?

Well, the key to use the ecosystem in favor of agriculture and that agriculture respects and protects the ecosystem. The following examples show four important aspects of agroecology and the agroecological practices:3

Source: http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4729e.pdf
Illustration: @salvaranic

The cases above are just a few examples of the outreach of agroecology and demonstrate that it is possible to feed the world population with food that is good, healthy and fair.

This can be done with smart innovative practices coming from small farmers that have adapted farming to the ecosystem.

Let’s support farmers practicing sustainable agriculture!!

In this regard, there is a very nice organization, A growing culture, that advocates for agroecological innovations coming from farmers. It is really worth checking it out!

Are you still not convinced as why it is so important to support farmers?

Please have a look to the following figure that shows the world urbanization patterns of the population:

It is evident that more and more people move from the countryside to the cities. Nothing wrong with that, right? But if the main reason is to escape from poverty and to have a “better life,” then, something is really wrong with our society…

Did you know that of the ca. 770 million people living in extreme poverty (or 11% of the words population living with less than 1.90 US dollar a day) 80% live in rural areas and are mostly farmers (two thirds)?5

Food is mandatory for living! Which make it incomprehensive that the people producing this essential good are among the poorest! And no wonder only few young people are interested in becoming farmers.

How can farmers be motivated to produce good quality food if we do not pay a fair price?

Importantly, prices not only include the cost of food production, but also a range of other factors not captured in the price of conventional food (e.g. environmental enhancement protection, higher standards for animal wellbeing, avoidance of health risks to farmers, rural development).

We need to support farmers, especially agroecologial producers, so that they keep feeding the world with good, delicious, healthy, fair food – with true food!

But, who are these farmers?

Worldwide, there are more than 570 million farms, from which more than 475 million farms are smaller than 2 hectares (ca. 84% operating in 12% of the worlds agricultural land), and more than 500 million are family farms (about 90% operating in ca. 75% of the farm land). Family farms are constantly distributed in almost all countries in the world and, therefore, are likely to be responsible for most of the world’s food and agricultural production.6

Also, in low income countries, small farms operate more farmland that do small farms in higher income countries.6  

So, we know now more about who is producing our food but how do we support them?

Probably, the only way of really doing it, is to find out who is our farmer. Shops are in the obligation of informing us and, if they cannot do so or we do not trust the information obtained, it may be a good time to change provider.

Cocoa producers in Africa. Cocoa is the main ingredient in chocolate. The market price of cocoa is not determined by the countries that produce it. The market price of cocoa does not always value the costs of economic, social and environmental production.

But, you might think that the so-called biological shops selling organic food are just too expensive and products are unaffordable…and you are probably right. A new economic system is now using the word organic frequently and labels food with lots of certificates.

And yes, we agree that organic products are limited, typically they have greater production and logistics costs due to the smaller quantities of produce (e.g. transportation, marketing, distribution) and farmers need to pay to be “certified organic”.7

When did it become normal that the food needed to be certified to be organic? Isn’t food organic by definition? Shouldn’t the food that uses chemical inputs be labeled chemically produce? Our food system is upside down!

Actually, there are a lot of agricultural systems that fully meet the requirements for organic agriculture that are not-certified organic. Especially in developing countries, these products are sold locally (e.g. village markets) directly to the consumer who benefit from knowing the origin of the food at normal market price.7 Let’s support their work!

But what does the “organic label” mean? Foods labeled as organic certify that the product does not contain synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, hormones and antibiotics, right? However, should we not care about what is inside our food and where it comes from instead? It might be the only way to start living in a sustainable way!

To achieve a transformation in the food system, changes are needed. From the production to the table. From those who grow food, to those who eat it, and all those who move the food in between.3

Some really outstanding projects that are making the difference by using agroecological principles are:

Nagenahiru, in Siri Lanka, is a foundation that focuses on the capacity of building disadvantaged rural communities addressing local needs through economically viable, culturally feasible, socially just and ecologically sustainable activities. They are achieving amazing things!

Eca-Amarakaeri, in Peru, is a Communal and Natural Reserve co-managed by 10 indigenous communities and representatives of the Peruvian State, covering an area of more than 400,000 hectares of forest. The financing comes from the sustainable harvesting of Brazilian nut which generates a stable income avoiding illegal logging, mining and other activities that threaten the Amazon rainforest.

Veta la Palma, in southern Spain, is a farm within the National Park de Doñana that has managed an integrated intervention of artificial wetland habitat for fish farming (29% of the land), the ecoagricultural practices of rice cultivation and foraging crops for cattle and horses growing (29% of the land) with the preservation of the ecosystem (42% of the land), generating  new economic activities based on principals of sustainability.

Las Cañadas, located in one of the last islands of the Veracruz Cloud Forest in Mexico, is a sustainable agroecologiacal farm as well as a green enterprise sharing knowledge through courses, seeds, plants and books helping others to implement practical and integrated solutions to live in a more sustainable way.

But probably one of the best ways to start is simple and can be started at home, in our community: let’s start a sustainable garden! There are a lot of benefits in creating gardens in cities (urban gardening):8

  • Economically, it helps low-income households to grow food for consumption and the surpluses for selling (income generation). Additionally, it provides employment opportunities.
  • Socially, it can provide a sense of community, promote rural-urban connections. It offers recreational opportunities improving life quality for urban residents (particularly young and elderly people). The production and consumption of fresh and nutritious vegetables improves child nutrition.
  • Ecologically, it reuses wastewater and organic soil waste, reduces the use of fertilizers and pesticides, and helps cites to become more resilient to climate change by reducing vulnerability of urban residents (particularly poor), diversifying urban food sources and income opportunities, keeping green open spaces and enhancing vegetative cover reducing urban heat-island effect.
Marigold flower on my balcony. Marigold is an easy going plant, a good friends of vegetables. Pollinators love them. In addition, the petals can give flavor and color to salads, rice, purees, etc.

Cities have a vital role to play in shaping the food system of the future, they can offer valuable contributions for regenerative practices with the potential of creating a new sustainable economy.9

Let’s be an active part of the solution; buy local, sustainable, seasonal, Fairtrade items, support agroecological farmers and make your own garden.

Stay tuned – we are starting our own urban garden! You can be part of it here by sharing your thoughts, ideas and suggestions.

By M. S. Gachet et N. Zanuto
Full story of the cover photo can be found here.

1 FAO. FAO Soils Portal.
2 FAO: 1985. Irrigation Water Management: Chapter 2 – Soil and Water
3 FAO: 2015. Agroecology for Food Security and Nutrition. Proceedings of the FAO International Symposium.
4 Chapter 6: Nitrogen in the Soil-Crop System. In: Soil and Water Quality – An Agenda for Agriculture. NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS, Washington, D.C. (1993).
5 World Bank Group: 2016. Who are the Poor in the Developing World?
6 Lowder, S. et al., FAO, 2016. The Number, Size and Distribution of Farms, Smallholder Farms and Family Farms Worldwide.
7 FAO: Organic agriculture.
8 The World Bank, 2013. Urban development series.
9 Ellen Macarthur Foundation, 2019. Cities and Circular Economy for Food.

V.I.F. (Very Important Food)

Food is what we put on our plates to eat, to maintain life and much more! Food is love, passion, cultural and personal identity, natural resources, nutrients, work, sweat, trade, economy, transformation and experimentation; but with the world’s environmental, social and economic differences in addition to the continuous increase of the population, good, clean, fair and healthy food for all at all times is the greatest challenge of humanity.

Sustainable development goals

The United Nations countries (193 in total), together with 150 leaders around the world, have adopted a set of 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) to be met by year 2030 that aim to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure prosperity for all. Not surprisingly, most of the goals are related with food or could be achieved with a fare and sustainable food system, the goals aim for:1

1. No poverty;
2. Zero hunger (achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture);
3. Good health and well-being for all at all ages;
4. Ensuring inclusive and quality education for all and promote lifelong learning;
5. Achieving gender equality;
6. Access to clean water and sanitation for all;
7. Access to affordable and clean energy for all;
8. Promoting decent work and economic growth;
9. Promoting sustainable industry, innovation and infrastructure;
10. Reducing inequalities within and among countries;
11. Making cities and communities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable;
12. Ensuring responsible consumption and production;
13. Taking urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts;
14. Conserving and sustainably using the oceans, seas and marine resources;
15. Promoting sustainable management of forests, combating desertification, halting and reversing land degradation and halting biodiversity loss;
16. Promoting just, peaceful and inclusive societies; and
17. Revitalizing and creating global partnerships to achieve the goals.

The dictionary defines food as any substance (usually of plant or animal origin) consumed to provide nutritional support (i.e. carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals) by an organism. In fact, carbohydrates, fats and proteins, are building blocks of all living organisms on earth. Nutrients are assimilated by the organism to provide energy and maintain life. 

Food commodities

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) estimates that the total agricultural production worldwide is about 6 billion tonnes per year.2 So in order to better understand food production and its footprint on natural resources (environmental footprint), food has been grouped into eight commodites2:

1. Cereals (excluding beer);
2. Starchy Roots;
3. Oilcrops and Pulses;
4. Fruits (excluding wine);
5. Meat;
6. Fish & Seafood;
7. Milk (excluding butter) & Eggs and;
8. Vegetables

Interestingly, cereals represent the biggest agricultural commodity (34% of the world’s production) followed by animal products (20% (meat, milk & eggs and fish & seafood))2 as shown in the figure below:

But let’s go back to the beginning…

Food production requires essential elements (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen (which form all living organisms)), water, soil and biodiversity. 

To produce food we need a lot of natural resources as well as energy for postharvest handling and storage, processing, distribution and consumption2… and therefore, food has an impact on the planet.

The Environmental Footprint of Food

The “environmental food footprint” refers to the energy and resources required for its production and is measured through four indicators: the carbon footprint, the blue water footprint, land occupation and the impact on biodiversity.2

In regard to the carbon footprint, the foods with the highest impact are cereals and animal products, accounting for 34% and 33%, respectively. For the blue water footprint, the foods with the greatest impact are cereals, fruits and animal products, accounting for 52%, 18% and 16%, respectively. However, animal products have a larger water footprint per tonne of product than any crop. As for land occupation, animal products represent by far the biggest impact occupying 85% (78% meat alone) of the total surface area of the soil used to produce food.2

Concerning biodiversity, farming (conversion of wild lands and intensification) is the major global threat. This occurs especially in developing regions where 72% and 34% of species are threatened by crops and livestock production, respectively, versus 44% and 21% in developed countries. Also noteworthy, deforestation due to agricultural expansion occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa (62%), Latin America (25%) and Asia (13%)2 and has destroyed 5.2 million Ha/year between 2000 and 2010 (the net annual loss of forest equivalent to an area about the size of Costa Rica)3.  

Meat and dairy products have the highest global food print of carbon, raw materials and water per kilogram of any food, not to mention its impact on land occupation and biodiversity.2

Mennonite sisters from the Santa Rita community in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, get up early every day to milk the family’s cows. This milk is used for consumption in the form of milk, cheese or butter. The family also has a cheese factory. The members of the community sell them their milk and they make the cheese that is later distributed in the city of Santa Cruz. Photo by Karla Gachet. The full story can be found here

On this regard, the global movements Reducetarian and Meatless Monday are generating awareness on the health and environmental benefits of reducing the portions of meat derived products on our diets. Take the challenge and try it out!

If you are interested on the environmental footprint, check out the Global Footprint Network website which shows in detail the information about the environmental footprint of more than 180 countries and also based on your energy consumption calculates your personal environmental footprint. We will talk about the topic soon. Keep tuned!  

But, why should we think about this? Why is this so important?

Humanity is facing an important problem: How will we feed the growing world population in a fair way, without overexploiting nature, without excluding people and without tormenting animals?

Agriculture is not a natural process. Humans have domesticated nature to produce food. However, before the Industrial Revolution, people respected the environment and natural cycles more than they do today maybe because of the lack of technology and/or they were less concerned with the financial system.

Paradoxically, with the development of technologies and the understanding of processes, the overexploitation of natural resources started: monocultures (and to allow them the use of pesticides and synthetic fertilizers) and intensive animal farming consequently vitiated societies with an excess of food at consistent low prices which makes it possible to waste. In truth, the low cost of food is paid at a high price by the environment, animals, farmers, and the society.

In Santo Domingo de los Colorados, Ecuador, medium and large companies produce tropical fruits such as pineapples for local and international markets. Most of them are grown as monocultures. Representan una fuente de ingresos y alimentos para las familias de la zona. Photo by Karla Gachet.

Additionally, from the 250-300 thousand known edible plant species existing in the planet only 4% (150-200 species) are used by humans. And from these, 3 (rice, maize and wheat) contribute to 60% of calories and proteins obtained by humans from plants. In the world, 75% of the food is generated from only 12 plants and 5 animals.4

We are losing local knowledge and agrodiversity is disappearing (ca. 75% of plant genetic diversity has been lost since 1900).4   

In addition to being environmentally unsustainable, our food system is economically inefficient. For every dollar spent on food, the society pays two in health, environmental, social and economic costs.5

Half of these costs are related to consumption (obesity, malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency) and the other half is associated with the way food is produced (waste, pollution (intensive production uses large quantities of pesticides, fertilizers and antibiotics) and depletion of natural capital (water pollution, soil degradation).5


Things need to change urgently!! We are destroying our planet and losing food diversity due to our obsession for uniformity food (size, color, shape, taste) and high yield… We need to start valorizing diversity and living in a sustainable way!

Sustainability means ensuring human rights and well-being without depleting or diminishing the capacity of the earth’s ecosystems to support life, or at the expense of others’ well-being. It is a multi-dimensional concept encompassing environmental integrity (nature), social well-being (people), economic resilience and good governance (FAO).6

It all seems very complicated… so what can we do? A lot!!!

We can choose to eat differently, to select better, to buy at a fair price, locally, seasonally and only that which we are going to eat all the while supporting good agricultural practices. There are great initiatives around the world. Join us in this journey to discover them and start supporting them!!

Lexicon of Food has created a dictionary of themes and terms explaining the current food system that will change the way you look at food. Great graphic art and videos that are really worth checking.!  

Food Tank focuses on spreading the knowledge about environmental, social and economically sustainable initiatives to eradicate hunger, obesity and poverty.

Believe Earth is another one where inspiring people tell what they are doing to make the world a better place. 

A great example regarding the power of consumers to improve the food system is the French company C’est qui le Patron (Who is the boss). Consumers were asked the characteristics of the milk they wanted to consume (remuneration for farmers, origin, grazing time, no genetic modified organisms) and the price they were willing to pay for it (0.99 euro instead of 0.69 euro). The milk was very successful and the company is now also selling other food products.  

There are also many local movements such as the Ecuadorian citizen initiative Que rico es where smart consumers organize local markets and get involved with local problems regarding their food system (labels, nutrition, seeds, etc.).

With respect to the new sustainable business models that exist today, take a look at the solutions shown in Drawdown and ZERI. It’s really worth seeing!

The Ellen Macarthur Report proposes innovations that can be implemented in cities using the circular economy model with the potential to regenerate the food system. Get inspired and participate in the change!

We also recommend you check out Slow Food, a movement born in Italy and spread all over the world. The movement focuses on the protection of biodiversity and the importance of building a sustainable food system. Together we share the idea that diversity (biological, cultural, linguistic, generational, sexual and religious) is the greatest treasure that we have as individuals and as society and that the importance of good, clean, fair and healthy food for all is a priority.

Let’s become critical consumers!!

La Vega Central market in Santiago de Chile also known as “Feria Mapocho”. From the colonial time, farmers gathered in the area of “​​La Chimba” to sell their products. Today hundreds of thousands of people pass through La Vega Central daily. Many of the stalls have been inherited from parents to children. Photo by Karla Gachet. The full story can be found here

Only by becoming aware of our contribution can we take decisions that will allow us to build a sustainable world. Our consumer footprint has an impact… Let’s start making some changes!!

By M. S. Gachet et N. Zanuto

1 UN. Sustainable Development Goals.
2 FAO, 2013: Food Wastage Footprint. Impact on Natural Resources.
3 FAO. World deforestation decreases, but remains alarming in many countries.
4 FAO. What is Happening to Agrobiodiversity?
5 Ellen Macarthur Foundation, 2019: Cities and Circular Economy for Food.
6 FAO. Sustainability Pathways.